What happens when an employee with a mental disability misbehaves in the workplace? If the mental disability causes the employee to misbehave and violate workplace conduct rules, can the employer discipline the employee?
The EEOC has tackled this thorny ADA question, and many others, in a new publication titled: “The Americans With Disabilities Act: Applying Performance And Conduct Standards To Employees With Disabilities.”
An EEOC press release acknowledges that employers struggle greatly with the ADA’s vague proscriptions and mandates. “The EEOC continues to receive numerous questions on these topics from employers and from individuals with disabilities, indicating that there is still a high level of uncertainty about how the ADA affects these fundamental personnel issues. This document will serve a critical need and enhance compliance with the ADA.”
According to the new guide, the ADA permits employers to apply the same performance standards to all employees, including those with disabilities, and emphasizes that the ADA does not affect an employer’s right to hold all employees to basic conduct standards, notes the press release. “At the same time,” cautions the EEOC, “employers must make reasonable accommodations that enable individuals with disabilities to meet performance and conduct standards.”
For example, the EEOC provides the following hypothetical example:
Steve, a new bank teller, barks, shouts, utters nonsensical phrases, and makes other noises that are so loud and frequent that they distract other tellers and cause them to make errors in their work. Customers also hear Steve’s vocal tics, and several of them speak to Donna, the bank manager. Donna discusses the issue with Steve and he explains that he has Tourette Syndrome, a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary, rapid, sudden movements or vocalizations that occur repeatedly. Steve explains that while he could control the tics sufficiently during the job interview, he cannot control them throughout the work day; nor can he modulate his voice to speak more softly when these tics occur. Donna lets Steve continue working for another two weeks, but she receives more complaints from customers and other tellers who, working in close proximity to Steve, continue to have difficulty processing transactions. Although Steve is able to perform his basic bank teller accounting duties, Donna terminates Steve because his behavior is not compatible with performing the essential function of serving customers and his vocal tics are unduly disruptive to coworkers. Steve’s termination is permissible because it is job-related and consistent with business necessity to require that bank tellers be able to (1) conduct themselves in an appropriate manner when serving customers and (2) refrain from interfering with the ability of coworkers to perform their jobs. Further, because Steve never performed the essential functions of his job satisfactorily, the bank did not have to consider reassigning him as a reasonable accommodation.
Employers addressing day-to-day personnel issues are often left guessing about the ADA’s ill-defined requirements. The EEOC’s guide does a laudable job providing specific examples and straightforward answers to questions. The explanation and examples regarding disciplining ADA employees are particularly helpful.
Other topics addressed include issues related to attendance, dress codes, and drug and alcohol use, and the circumstances in which employers can ask questions about an employee’s disability when performance or conduct problems occur.
Employers should carefully study the EEOC’s new publication. However, keep in mind that the courts have the final say on the ADA, and the judiciary is not bound to follow the EEOC’s guidance. For example, in Gambini v. Total Renal Care, Inc. dba DaVita, 486 F.3d 1087 (Wash. 2007), an employee was terminated for making violent outbursts at work. She claimed that it was caused by her bipolar disorder. The Ninth Circuit reversed a lower court decision, finding that the outbursts were protected ADA conduct. For more details on this case, click here.